How do you build a stable bridge to cross the auburn ravine?
ReSearch different types of Bridges
Go to the following website and listen or read all about different types of bridges.
Next, go to the following website and see if you can figure out which type of bridge is best for the body of water or large land mass the bridge needs to cover.
Compare and contrast the Brooklyn Bridge with the Golden Gate Bridge.
Let's watch together Eric Carle's story The Mixed-Up Chameleon. Then you will do research from the the non-fiction story Chameleons Are Cool by Martin Jenkins for interesting facts. Write down "true or false" facts on your graphic organizer and color your chameleon.
First you will need to know that the moon orbits our Earth. The moon goes through a cycle and repeats this cycle about every 27 days. For this activity that is all you need to know about the cycle of the moon. If you wish to find out more information about the orbit of the moon you can check out this website:
The next thing will be talking about the phases of the moon. The moon phases in the correct order are: New Moon, First Quarter, Full Moon, Third Quarter, and then back to New Moon.
You will cut and paste for this month in 2017.
Not only do humans change their environment, but plants and animals can too! In this 6 week unit we will explore how plants and animals change their environment to survive. We will conclude with making an argument on how to reduce our impact as humans on the Earth.
When you are done reading the article pick an animal below to research more about. You will research and write a narrative, informational, and opinion story about it. Then you will present about the animal in your final presentation.
Let's Read About it!
Humans aren't the only animals that change their environments
[Animals] that physically modify elements of ecosystems are often called ecosystem engineers. Beavers... are a [good] example. There are many other [animals change their environment].
At the small end of the scale are such things as woodpeckers, which make holes in trees, creating nest sites for many other [living things] and entry points for bacteria and fungi that may eventually rot the tree.
Fiddler crabs in salt marshes dig burrows, increasing decomposition rates, drainage, and plant production.
Bears dig up the roots of skunk cabbage, leaving a pit that fills with water [that other living things can drink].
[Animal] trails on steep slopes can create pathways [for hiking], and seabird nesting burrows are reported to increase soil erosion dramatically in some places [or make places safer to walk on].
On some beaches, tiny one-celled algae called diatoms produce [a substance], which helps to stabilize the beaches.
Even tiny [living things] can be engineers. The algae, fungi, and bacteria that form crusts on the surface of the soil [that may be unhealthy].
Geese dig up roots and basal stems of grasses and sedges in salt marshes. Studies of the Lesser Snow Goose in Canada have shown that snow geese change the [plants] by [loving] certain kinds of plants [to eat]; goose feces encourages [plants to regrow].
Burrowing [or animals that dig in the ground] are earth-moving engineers. They can move huge quantities of soil. For example, gophers and ground squirrels have moved up to 40 tons per acre of soil in some locations. These activities change [where plants may grow and can help spread more plants around in a habitat].
Salmon are engineers too. Females dig nests that can be many inches deep, moving fine sediments downstream. [Sediments or small pieces of dirt help keep rivers wide and strong].
Spawning king salmon in some rivers have built up huge dunes of gravel by their digging activities. Such dunes can be several feet high and many feet long, so they [change which way a river or stream flows].
Earthworms are [amazing] movers of soil. Charles Darwin wrote a whole book about earthworms and their engineering effects. Several ounces of soil may be [moved from one place to another] at the mouth of a single worm burrow. The effect of many worms can add many inches of soil on the surface, with the result that stones lying on the surface appear to sink and are gradually buried. In [farms], their engineering effects are commonly considered to be largely beneficial (to humans, that is). Worms help [break down plants] and incorporate that organic material in the soil; their tunnels aerate the soil.
Earthworms are often introduced to areas by gardeners and farmers, to make compost and improve nutrients [in the ground], or by horticulturalists in potted plants; in some regions they are introduced by fishermen who use them as bait. In general, earthworm invasions have had marked effects on soil processes, especially in areas that previously had no earthworms. For example, studies in cool temperate forests have demonstrated that introduced worms resulted in [less nutrients in the soil]; lower [nutrients] in leaves is likely to [increase] the [eating patterns] of leaf-eating animals.
Humans are the [biggest] ecosystem engineers. They physically modify almost every landscape they occupy. Humans drain marshes and entire aquifers, [take all of the water out of] some streams and flood others, cut or burn [forests], plow up the sod, quarry rock and gravel deposits, cut away whole mountains in search of minerals, pave the ground with impermeable surfaces, dig harbors and build breakwaters, send untold millions of tons of sediment down rivers into bays and seas, fill lagoons and lakes and swamps, and so on.Human engineering typically has negative effects on previous [plants and animals] of an area.
Volcanoes usually have a life of many thousands of years. Once a volcano has begun to erupt, it usually takes about ten years before that particular eruption comes to an end. Sometimes the eruption lasts for hundreds of years. The magma (molten rock) which is erupted from a volcano comes from deep inside the earth — usually from about 150 kilometers deep. The pressure there is enormous. The pressure forces the magma to rise through the crust of solid rocks, creating a volcanic eruption. Volcanoes release ash at the beginning of an eruption because the amount of gas is very high and it drives the explosions. After that time, the lava may come out but it usually has very little energy, so it is not very dangerous.
The first volcanic eruption happened before the first human existed. The earth has had erupting volcanoes since just about the first years that it existed — about four and a half billion years ago. In fact, some of the best places for finding the fossils of ancient humans are in east Africa because they are buried in ashes of ancient volcanoes that erupted around them. On the Earth today there are around 560 active volcanoes. Each week 15 – 20 of these volcanoes will erupt. Each year two or three volcanoes erupt that were previously thought to be dead.
When hot molten magma escapes from the Earth’s core becoming cooler, and forming hard rocks, we refer to this process as volcanism. Volcanism takes place both above the surface of Earth, as well as beneath its surface. When molten lava escapes the Earth and reaches the surface geologists say that it is extrusive volcanism. When molten magma cools and hardens beneath the surface of the Earth, we say that it is intrusive volcanism. In some cases, molten magma cools and hardens deep beneath the surface of the Earth, far below the crust. When this happens, scientists call it plutonic volcanism.
When volcanic activity takes place above ground, so that hot molten magma is released onto the landscape, we say that the volcanic activity is extrusive, meaning it is on the exterior, or outside of the Earth. Magma that reaches the service is known as lava. Lava flows are extraordinarily hot, and destructive. In many cases, these lava flows are slow and continuous, as is the case with the volcano on the Hawaiian Island. Hot lava flows year after year down the volcano, creating new terrain, rarely exploding.
In other cases, volcanoes can erupt with unbelievable force and power. These types of eruptions can send lava, rock, and hot ash, known as pyroclastic material shooting outward for hundreds of square miles, in some cases, even sending up a worldwide cloud of dust and ash. One example of such an eruption is the island of Krakatua. In 1883 this island volcano exploded in a colossal event that completely destroyed the island, leaving nothing but ocean behind. The noise from the explosion was heard as far as 1,500 miles away, and dust filled the sky worldwide, creating beautiful sunsets for months.
One of the most famous hot spots on Earth are the Hawaiian Islands. The oldest islands found in the Hawaiian Island chain consist of mostly dead volcanoes. These volcanoes were active millions of years ago, but the moving crust of the ocean floor has carried them away the hot spot that feed the volcanoes. The newest island is the big island, which today has two active volcanoes. These volcanoes are feed by the same hot spot that used to feed the dead volcanoes on older islands. Millions of years from now, it is likely that additional islands will form over the same hot spot, as the Earth’s crust carries the big island away from the hot spot it know sits on.
When volcanoes erupt, the immediate effect on plant life is destructive and deadly. As lava, heat, and ash cover the landscape, trees and other plants are burned, buried, and destroyed. Thus, it is easy to suppose that volcanoes and plants don’t mix. While it is true that the immediate effect of volcanoes on plant life is death, the long term effect is very positive. Magma from the Earth’s core contains a rich source of nutrients that plants need to survive. Each time a volcano erupts, it brings these nutrients with it. When volcanoes explode, spreading ash around a large area, this ash acts as a fertilizer, enriching the soil. It is no surprise that the soil near volcanoes is among the richest and most fertile on Earth.
What type of events on Earth cause slow changes to the landforms that exist on Earth? What effects do events have on landforms that cause them to quickly change?
Below are examples of slow and fast happenings that change the Earth's surface. Can you identify which events are slow and which are quick?
Use this website to help answer the question you have about glaciers.
Wind and Water
You are going to identify plants and animals in the Arctic Tundra. Then you are going to write a friendly letter to a friend or family member about the environment.
Bring a special winter jacket even if you're visiting in summer. Summer temperatures rarely go over freezing in the Arctic Tundra, so you will have to dress up accordingly. Dress in layers so you can take things off or put them on as you warm up throughout the day. A polypropylene shirt, followed by a sweater and a vest should be enough. A waterproof lined jacket is a must for colder or windy days.
Bring high-SPF sunscreen if you're visiting in summer. In certain areas of the Arctic Tundra, summer means days where the sun never sets and it's always daylight. Constant exposure to the sun can lead to sunburns, despite the low temperatures. You also should bring sunglasses and lip balm with sun protection.
Pack items to keep your head, neck and face warm. A wool or synthetic hat should be enough for summer. In winter, a face mask or a balaclava make more sense, as they will offer more protection against the wind. In winter, you also might need goggles to protect your eyes from the icy temperatures.
Bring a thick insulation jacket if you're visiting in winter. The United States Antarctic Program recommends jackets made of Holofill Thinsulate, Polarguard, Primaloft and down. The jacket should be large enough to allow several layers of clothing underneath. It also should have a hood to protect your head and sides of your face against the wind. In winter you also will need thermal underwear, and thick insulated pants over the long underwear.
Pack thick wool socks to protect your feet. You also will need insulated winter boots that are waterproof. For winter, it's best to choose high boots that reach to your ankles. These will prevent snow and ice from getting in and making your feet wet, which could cause frostbite.
Bring thick waterproof mittens or gloves, as well as several pairs of wool gloves. In very cold days, you can wear your wool gloves under the waterproof mittens. You also can buy special ski or waterproof gloves that are lined with fleece or wool.
Pack a flashlight if you're visiting in winter. You'll encounter long hours of absolute darkness. If you're there to view wildlife, bring binoculars, as tour companies will try to keep a certain distance to avoid disturbing the animals. Bring extra batteries for your camera. Batteries lose power faster in cold weather, according to the New York Institute of Photography.
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